Google LLC

URL https://Persagen.com/docs/google.html
Sources Persagen.com  |  Wikipedia  |  other sources (cited in situ)
Source URL https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google
Date published 2021-10-14
Curation date 2021-10-14
Curator Dr. Victoria A. Stuart, Ph.D.
Modified
Editorial practice Refer here  |  Date format: yyyy-mm-dd
Summary
  • Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, a search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.

  • Google is considered one of the Big Tech companies companies in the American information technology industry, along with Amazon,   Facebook,   Apple, and Microsoft.

Key points
  • Google.com is the most visited website worldwide. Several other Google-owned websites also are on the list of most popular websites, including YouTube and Blogger. On the list of most valuable brands, Google is ranked second by Forbes and fourth by Interbrand.

  • Google has received significant criticism involving issues such as privacy concerns, tax avoidance, censorship, search neutrality, antitrust and abuse of its monopoly position.

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Google LLC
google_2015_logo.png
Google logo since 2015.
 
Corporate Information
 
Name Google LLC
Former name Google Inc. (1998-2017)
Founded 1998-08-04 (Menlo Park, California, U.S.A.)
Founders
Type Subsidiary  (LLC)
EIN (Tax ID)
Location United States
Headquarters Mountain View, California , U.S.A.
Areas served Global
Industry
CEO Sundar Pichai (Pichai Sundararajan; CEO of Google and Alphabet)
Executives Ruth Porat  (CFO)
Controversies
Products
  • Full list
  • Summary: Show
Revenue 2020: $US182,527,000,000
Profit 2020: $US97,795,000,000
Assets 2020: $US319,616,000,000
Employees 2021: 139,995
Parent company Alphabet Inc.
Website Google.com
Contents

  • This article is a stub [additional content pending ...].

  • Background

    Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, a search engine,   cloud computing, software, and hardware. Google is considered one of the Big Tech companies companies in the American information technology industry, along with Amazon,   Facebook,   Apple, and Microsoft.

    Google was founded on September 4, 1998, by Lawrence Edward "Larry" Page and Sergey Mikhaylovich Brin while they were Ph.D. students at Stanford University in California. Together they own about 14% of its publicly-listed shares and control 56% of the stockholder voting power through super-voting stock. The company went public via an initial public offering (IPO) in 2004. In 2015, Google was reorganized as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Alphabet Inc.. Google is Alphabet's largest subsidiary and is a holding company for Alphabet's Internet properties and interests. Sundar Pichai [Pichai Sundararajan] was appointed CEO of Google on October 24, 2015, replacing Larry Page, who became the CEO of Alphabet. On December 3, 2019, Pichai also became the CEO of Alphabet.

    In 2021, the Alphabet Workers Union was founded, mainly composed of Google employees.

    The company's rapid growth since incorporation has included products, acquisitions, and partnerships beyond Google's core search engine,  (Google Search).

    Google offers services designed for:

  • work and productivity (Google Docs,   Google Sheets, and Google Slides),

  • email (Gmail),

  • scheduling and time management (Google Calendar),

  • cloud storage (Google Drive),

  • instant messaging and video chat (Google Duo,   Google Chat, and Google Meet),

  • language translation (Google Translate),

  • mapping and navigation (Google Maps,   Waze,   Google Earth, and Street View),

  • podcast hosting (Google Podcasts),

  • video sharing (YouTube),

  • blog publishing (Blogger),

  • note-taking (Google Keep and Jamboard),

  • and photo organizing and editing (Google Photos).

  • Google leads the development of the;

  • Android mobile operating system,

  • the Google Chrome web browser,

  • and (a lightweight, proprietary operating system based on the free and open-source Chromium OS operating system).

  • Google has moved increasingly into hardware; from 2010 to 2015, it partnered with major electronics manufacturers in the production of its Google Nexus devices, and it released multiple hardware products in 2016, including the Google Pixel line of smartphones, Google Home smart speaker, Google Wifi mesh wireless router.

    Google has also experimented with becoming an Internet carrier (Google Fiber and Google Fi).

    Google.com is the most visited website worldwide. Several other Google-owned websites also are on the list of most popular websites, including YouTube and Blogger. On the list of most valuable brands, Google is ranked second by Forbes, and fourth by Interbrand. Google has received significant criticism involving issues such as privacy concerns,   tax avoidance,   censorship,   search neutrality,   antitrust, and abuse of its monopoly position.


  • This is a draft article [additional content pending ...].
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  • Please see Wikipedia for the continuation of this content ...].

  • Advertising

  • See also: Google Ad Manager.

  • Google generates most of its revenues from advertising. This includes sales of apps, purchases made in-app, digital content products on Google and YouTube, Android and licensing and service fees, including fees received for Google Cloud offerings. Forty-six percent of this profit was from clicks (cost per clicks), amounting to US$109,652 million in 2017. This includes three principal methods, namely AdMob,   AdSense (such as AdSense for ContentAdSense for Search, etc.), and DoubleClick AdExchange (AdX).

    In addition to its own algorithms for understanding search requests, Google uses technology its acquisition of DoubleClick, to project user interest and target advertising to the search context and the user history.

    In 2007, Google launched AdSense for Mobile, taking advantage of the emerging mobile advertising market.

    Google Analytics

    Google Analytics allows website owners to track where and how people use their website, for example by examining click rates for all the links on a page. Google advertisements can be placed on third-party websites in a two-part program. Google Ads allows advertisers to display their advertisements in the Google content network, through a cost-per-click scheme. The sister service, Google AdSense, allows website owners to display these advertisements on their website and earn money every time ads are clicked. One of the criticisms of this program is the possibility of click fraud, which occurs when a person or automated script clicks on advertisements without being interested in the product, causing the advertiser to pay money to Google unduly. Industry reports in 2006 claimed that approximately 14 to 20 percent of clicks were fraudulent or invalid. Google Search Console (rebranded from Google Webmaster Tools in May 2015) allows webmasters to check the sitemap, crawl rate, and for security issues of their websites, as well as optimize their website's visibility.

  • [Related, Google Analytics: CNIL.fr, 2022-02-10] Use of Google Analytics and data transfers to the United States: the CNIL orders a website manager/operator to complyGoogle Analytics provides statistics on website traffic. After receiving complaints from the NOYB association [NOYB: European Center for Digital Rights], the CNIL  [CNIL: Commission nationale de l'informatique et des libertés], in cooperation with its European counterparts, analysed the conditions under which the data collected through this service is transferred to the United States. The CNIL considers that these transfers are illegal and orders a French website manager to comply with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and, if necessary, to stop using Google Analytics under the current conditions.  |  Discussion: Hacker News: 2022-02-10


  • Financials: Alphabet Inc. [GOOGL]


    Firing of Timnit Gebru

  • [Wired.com, 2021-06-08] What Really Happened When Google Ousted Timnit Gebru?.  She was a star engineer who warned that messy AI can spread racism. Google brought her in. Then it forced her out. Can Big Tech take criticism from within?

  • [MIT TechnologyReview.com, 2020-12-04] We read the paper that forced Timnit Gebru out of Google. Here's what it says.  The company's star ethics researcher highlighted the risks of large language models, which are key to Google's business.


  • Google Digital Advertising Antitrust Litigation

  • See main article; Google: Digital Advertising Antitrust Litigation


  • Google-Apple Antitrust Litigation

  • [📌 pinned article] [PRNewsWire.com, 2022-01-03] Class action lawsuit filed in California alleging Google is paying Apple to stay out of the search engine business.  |  Discussion: Hacker News: 2022-01-05


  • [theRegister.com, 2022-01-15] Google and Facebook's top execs allegedly approved dividing ad market among themselves.  Latest iteration of Texas-led antitrust complaint against Google expands claims of bad behavior.  |  Discussion: Hacker News: 2022-01-15

  • Cookies

  • [CNIL.fr, 2022-01-06] Cookies: the CNIL fines GOOGLE a total of 150 million euros and FACEBOOK 60 million euros for non-compliance with French legislation.  Following investigations, the CNIL noted that the websites facebook.com,   google.fr, and youtube.com do not make refusing cookies as easy as to accept them. It thus fines FACEBOOK 60 million euros and GOOGLE 150 million euros and orders them to comply within three months.  |  Discussion: Hacker News: 2022-01-06

  • Google - Safety Issues

  • [Nitter.net, 2021-10-16] Google instructions for treating a seizure, flipping "do nots" into "do's"  |  local copy  |  Mentioned: Hacker News: 2021-12-28


  • Additional Reading

  • [📌 pinned article] [theVerge.com, 2019-12-04] The rise, disappearance, and retirement of Google co-founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin.  The duo gave up control of parent company Alphabet on Tuesday.


  • [NPR.org, 2021-12-01] Ex-Google workers sue company, saying it betrayed 'Don't Be Evil' motto.

  • [theVerge.com, 2021-11-03] Google's reportedly bidding to be a military cloud provider.  The company has faced employee backlash for its Pentagon projects in the past.

  • [Twitter.com, 2021-10-23] Twitter.com/fasterthanlime/status/1452053940024057857:  "Google has a secret deal with Facebook called "Jedi Blue" that they knew was so illegal that it has a whole section describing how they'll cover for each other if anyone finds out - Google appears to have a team called gTrade that is wholly dedicated to ad market manipulation"  |  Discussion, Hacker News: 2021-10-24

  • [Politico.com, 2021-10-22] Google sought fellow tech giants' help in stalling kids' privacy protections, states allegeGoogle sought to use an August 2019 meeting with fellow tech giants Apple, Facebook and Microsoft to stall federal efforts to strengthen a children's online privacy law, attorneys general for Texas and other states alleged in newly unsealed court documents on Friday [2021-10-22]. ...  |  Discussion: Hacker News: 2021-10-23

  • [NYTimes.com, 2021-10-22] Google said it had successfully 'slowed down' European privacy rules, according to lawsuit..  |  Discussion: Hacker News: 2021-10-23(a);   Hacker News: 2021-10-23(b): references this Twitter thread

  • Google work culture (ex-employee exit commentary) [JayConrod.com, 2021-10-22] Leaving Googlelocal copy  |  Discussion, Hacker News: 2021-10-23

  • [Slate.com, 2020-01-15] The Evil List. Which tech companies are really doing the most harm?  Here are the 30 most dangerous, ranked by the people who know.


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